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Blockchain soll Festplatten-Fälschungen verhindern. SS- Oberführer Mohnke ordered Schnellgruppe Knittel, which had been designated to follow Hansen, to instead move forward to support Peiper.
SS- Sturmbannführer Knittel crossed the bridge at Stavelot around Knittel pressed forward towards La Gleize, and shortly afterward the Americans recaptured Stavelot.
Peiper and Knittel both faced the prospect of being cut off. At dawn on 19 December, Peiper surprised the American defenders of Stoumont by sending infantry from the 2nd SS Panzergrenadier Regiment in an attack and a company of Fallschirmjäger to infiltrate their lines.
He followed this with a Panzer attack, gaining the eastern edge of the town. An American tank battalion arrived but, after a two-hour tank battle, Peiper finally captured Stoumont at Knittel joined up with Peiper and reported the Americans had recaptured Stavelot to their east.
Assessing his own situation, he determined that his Kampfgruppe did not have sufficient fuel to cross the bridge west of Stoumont and continue his advance.
He maintained his lines west of Stoumont for a while, until the evening of 19 December when he withdrew them to the village edge. On the same evening the U.
James Gavin arrived and deployed at La Gleize and along Peiper's planned route of advance. German efforts to reinforce Peiper were unsuccessful.
Kampfgruppe Hansen was still struggling against bad road conditions and stiff American resistance on the southern route. Schnellgruppe Knittel was forced to disengage from the heights around Stavelot.
Kampfgruppe Sandig, which had been ordered to take Stavelot, launched another attack without success. Small units of the U. They failed and were forced to withdraw, and a number were captured, including battalion commander Maj.
As he withdrew from Cheneux, American paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division engaged the Germans in fierce house-to-house fighting. The Americans shelled Kampfgruppe Peiper on 22 December, and although the Germans had run out of food and had virtually no fuel, they continued to fight.
A Luftwaffe resupply mission went badly when SS- Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke insisted the grid coordinates supplied by Peiper were wrong, parachuting supplies into American hands in Stoumont.
In La Gleize, Peiper set up defenses waiting for German relief. When the relief force was unable to penetrate the Allied lines, he decided to break through the Allied lines and return to the German lines on 23 December.
The men of the Kampfgruppe were forced to abandon their vehicles and heavy equipment, although most of the remaining troops were able to escape.
The US 99th Infantry Division, outnumbered five to one, inflicted casualties in the ratio of 18 to one. German losses were much higher. In the northern sector opposite the 99th, this included more than 4, deaths and the destruction of 60 tanks and big guns.
Army prevented the German forces from reaching the road network to their west. Hautes Fagnes ; German: Hohes Venn ; Dutch: The objective was the " Baraque Michel " crossroads.
Von der Heydte was given only eight days to prepare prior to the assault. He was not allowed to use his own regiment because their movement might alert the Allies to the impending counterattack.
Instead, he was provided with a Kampfgruppe of men. The II Parachute Corps was tasked with contributing men from each of its regiments.
In loyalty to their commander, men from von der Heydte's own unit, the 6th Parachute Regiment , went against orders and joined him.
The parachute drop was a complete failure. Von der Heydte ended up with a total of around troops. Too small and too weak to counter the Allies, they abandoned plans to take the crossroads and instead converted the mission to reconnaissance.
With only enough ammunition for a single fight, they withdrew towards Germany and attacked the rear of the American lines.
Only about of his weary men finally reached the German rear. The Germans lacked the overwhelming strength that had been deployed in the north, but still possessed a marked numerical and material superiority over the very thinly spread 28th and th divisions.
They succeeded in surrounding two largely intact regiments nd and rd of the th Division in a pincer movement and forced their surrender, a tribute to the way Manteuffel's new tactics had been applied.
The amount lost in arms and equipment, of course, was very substantial. The Schnee Eifel battle, therefore, represents the most serious reverse suffered by American arms during the operations of —45 in the European theater.
In the center, the town of St. Vith, a vital road junction, presented the main challenge for both von Manteuffel's and Dietrich's forces.
The defenders, led by the 7th Armored Division , included the remaining regiment of the th U. Infantry Division, with elements of the 9th Armored Division and 28th U.
These units, which operated under the command of Generals Robert W. Hasbrouck 7th Armored and Alan W. Jones th Infantry , successfully resisted the German attacks, significantly slowing the German advance.
At Montgomery's orders, St. Vith was evacuated on 21 December; U. By 23 December, as the Germans shattered their flanks, the defenders' position became untenable and U.
Since the German plan called for the capture of St. To protect the river crossings on the Meuse at Givet, Dinant and Namur, Montgomery ordered those few units available to hold the bridges on 19 December.
This led to a hastily assembled force including rear-echelon troops, military police and Army Air Force personnel. The British 29th Armoured Brigade of British 11th Armoured Division , which had turned in its tanks for re-equipping, was told to take back their tanks and head to the area.
British XXX Corps was significantly reinforced for this effort. Unlike the German forces on the northern and southern shoulders who were experiencing great difficulties, the German advance in the center gained considerable ground.
The Ourthe River was passed at Ourtheville on 21 December. Lack of fuel held up the advance for one day, but on 23 December the offensive was resumed towards the two small towns of Hargimont and Marche-en-Famenne.
Hargimont was captured the same day, but Marche-en-Famenne was strongly defended by the American 84th Division. Although advancing only in a narrow corridor, 2nd Panzer Division was still making rapid headway, leading to jubilation in Berlin.
The narrow corridor caused considerable difficulties, as constant flanking attacks threatened the division.
On 24 December, German forces made their furthest penetration west. A hastily assembled Allied blocking force on the east side of the river prevented the German probing forces from approaching the Dinant bridge.
By late Christmas Eve the advance in this sector was stopped, as Allied forces threatened the narrow corridor held by the 2nd Panzer Division.
For Operation Greif " Griffin " , Otto Skorzeny successfully infiltrated a small part of his battalion of English-speaking Germans disguised in American uniforms behind the Allied lines.
Although they failed to take the vital bridges over the Meuse, their presence caused confusion out of all proportion to their military activities, and rumors spread quickly.
Checkpoints were set up all over the Allied rear, greatly slowing the movement of soldiers and equipment. American MPs at these checkpoints grilled troops on things that every American was expected to know, like the identity of Mickey Mouse 's girlfriend, baseball scores, or the capital of a particular U.
General Omar Bradley was briefly detained when he correctly identified Springfield as the capital of Illinois because the American MP who questioned him mistakenly believed the capital was Chicago.
The tightened security nonetheless made things very hard for the German infiltrators, and a number of them were captured. Even during interrogation, they continued their goal of spreading disinformation ; when asked about their mission, some of them claimed they had been told to go to Paris to either kill or capture General Dwight Eisenhower.
Because Skorzeny's men were captured in American uniforms, they were executed as spies. Skorzeny was tried by an American military tribunal in at the Dachau Trials for allegedly violating the laws of war stemming from his leadership of Operation Greif, but was acquitted.
He later moved to Spain and South America. Operation Währung was carried out by a small number of German agents who infiltrated Allied lines in American uniforms.
These agents were tasked with using an existing Nazi intelligence network to bribe rail and port workers to disrupt Allied supply operations.
The operation was a failure. Further south on Manteuffel's front, the main thrust was delivered by all attacking divisions crossing the River Our , then increasing the pressure on the key road centers of St.
The more experienced US 28th Infantry Division put up a much more dogged defense than the inexperienced soldiers of the th Infantry Division.
The th Infantry Regiment the most northerly of the 28th Division's regiments , holding a continuous front east of the Our, kept German troops from seizing and using the Our River bridges around Ouren for two days, before withdrawing progressively westwards.
The th and th Regiments of the 28th Division fared worse, as they were spread so thinly that their positions were easily bypassed. Both offered stubborn resistance in the face of superior forces and threw the German schedule off by several days.
Panzer columns took the outlying villages and widely separated strong points in bitter fighting, and advanced to points near Bastogne within four days.
The struggle for the villages and American strong points, plus transport confusion on the German side, slowed the attack sufficiently to allow the st Airborne Division reinforced by elements from the 9th and 10th Armored Divisions to reach Bastogne by truck on the morning of 19 December.
The fierce defense of Bastogne, in which American paratroopers particularly distinguished themselves, made it impossible for the Germans to take the town with its important road junctions.
The panzer columns swung past on either side, cutting off Bastogne on 20 December but failing to secure the vital crossroads. In the extreme south, Brandenberger's three infantry divisions were checked by divisions of the U.
VIII Corps after an advance of 6. Eisenhower and his principal commanders realized by 17 December that the fighting in the Ardennes was a major offensive and not a local counterattack, and they ordered vast reinforcements to the area.
Within a week , troops had been sent. General Gavin of the 82nd Airborne Division arrived on the scene first and ordered the st to hold Bastogne while the 82nd would take the more difficult task of facing the SS Panzer Divisions; it was also thrown into the battle north of the bulge, near Elsenborn Ridge.
By the time the senior Allied commanders met in a bunker in Verdun on 19 December, the town of Bastogne and its network of 11 hard-topped roads leading through the widely forested mountainous terrain with deep river valleys and boggy mud of the Ardennes region were to have been in German hands for several days, Bastogne having previously been the site of the VIII Corps headquarters.
Moreover, the sole corridor that was open to the southeast was threatened and it had been sporadically closed as the front shifted, and there was expectation that it would be completely closed sooner than later, given the strong likelihood that the town would soon be surrounded.
Eisenhower, realizing that the Allies could destroy German forces much more easily when they were out in the open and on the offensive than if they were on the defensive, told his generals, "The present situation is to be regarded as one of opportunity for us and not of disaster.
There will be only cheerful faces at this table. Then, we'll really cut 'em off and chew 'em up. To the disbelief of the other generals present, Patton replied that he could attack with two divisions within 48 hours.
Unknown to the other officers present, before he left Patton had ordered his staff to prepare three contingency plans for a northward turn in at least corps strength.
By the time Eisenhower asked him how long it would take, the movement was already underway. Conditions inside the perimeter were tough—most of the medical supplies and medical personnel had been captured.
Food was scarce, and by 22 December artillery ammunition was restricted to 10 rounds per gun per day. The weather cleared the next day and supplies primarily ammunition were dropped over four of the next five days.
Despite determined German attacks the perimeter held. The German commander, Generalleutnant Lt. Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz ,  requested Bastogne's surrender.
Anthony McAuliffe , acting commander of the st, was told of the Nazi demand to surrender, in frustration he responded, "Nuts!
Harry Kinnard , noted that McAuliffe's initial reply would be "tough to beat. Both 2nd Panzer and Panzer-Lehr division moved forward from Bastogne after 21 December, leaving only Panzer-Lehr division's st Regiment to assist the 26th Volksgrenadier-Division in attempting to capture the crossroads.
Because it lacked sufficient troops and those of the 26th VG Division were near exhaustion, the XLVII Panzerkorps concentrated its assault on several individual locations on the west side of the perimeter in sequence rather than launching one simultaneous attack on all sides.
The assault, despite initial success by its tanks in penetrating the American line, was defeated and all the tanks destroyed.
On the following day of 26 December the spearhead of Gen. Patton's 4th Armored Division, supplemented by the 26th Yankee Infantry Division, broke through and opened a corridor to Bastogne.
On 23 December the weather conditions started improving, allowing the Allied air forces to attack. They launched devastating bombing raids on the German supply points in their rear, and P Thunderbolts started attacking the German troops on the roads.
Allied air forces also helped the defenders of Bastogne, dropping much-needed supplies—medicine, food, blankets, and ammunition.
A team of volunteer surgeons flew in by military glider and began operating in a tool room. By 24 December the German advance was effectively stalled short of the Meuse.
The Germans had outrun their supply lines, and shortages of fuel and ammunition were becoming critical. Up to this point the German losses had been light, notably in armor, with the exception of Peiper's losses.
On the evening of 24 December, General Hasso von Manteuffel recommended to Hitler's Military Adjutant a halt to all offensive operations and a withdrawal back to the Westwall literally Western Rampart.
Disagreement and confusion at the Allied command prevented a strong response, throwing away the opportunity for a decisive action. In the center, on Christmas Eve, the 2nd Armored Division attempted to attack and cut off the spearheads of the 2nd Panzer Division at the Meuse, while the units from the 4th Cavalry Group kept the 9th Panzer Division at Marche busy.
As result, parts of the 2nd Panzer Division were cut off. The Panzer-Lehr division tried to relieve them, but was only partially successful, as the perimeter held.
For the next two days the perimeter was strengthened. On 26 and 27 December the trapped units of 2nd Panzer Division made two break-out attempts, again only with partial success, as major quantities of equipment fell into Allied hands.
Further Allied pressure out of Marche finally led the German command to the conclusion that no further offensive action towards the Meuse was possible.
In the south, Patton's Third Army was battling to relieve Bastogne. On 1 January, in an attempt to keep the offensive going, the Germans launched two new operations.
Hundreds of planes attacked Allied airfields, destroying or severely damaging some aircraft. The Germans suffered heavy losses at an airfield named Y , losing 40 of their own planes while damaging only four American planes.
While the Allies recovered from their losses within days, the operation left the Luftwaffe ineffective for the remainder of the war.
The weakened Seventh Army had, at Eisenhower's orders, sent troops, equipment, and supplies north to reinforce the American armies in the Ardennes, and the offensive left it in dire straits.
With casualties mounting, and running short on replacements, tanks, ammunition, and supplies, Seventh Army was forced to withdraw to defensive positions on the south bank of the Moder River on 21 January.
The German offensive drew to a close on 25 January. In the bitter, desperate fighting of Operation Nordwind, VI Corps, which had borne the brunt of the fighting, suffered a total of 14, casualties.
The total for Seventh Army for January was 11, While the German offensive had ground to a halt during January , they still controlled a dangerous salient in the Allied line.
Patton's Third Army in the south, centered around Bastogne, would attack north, Montgomery's forces in the north would strike south, and the two forces planned to meet at Houffalize.
The temperature during that January was extremely low, which required weapons to be maintained and truck engines run every half-hour to prevent their oil from congealing.
The offensive went forward regardless. Eisenhower wanted Montgomery to go on the counter offensive on 1 January, with the aim of meeting up with Patton's advancing Third Army and cutting off most of the attacking Germans, trapping them in a pocket.
Montgomery, refusing to risk underprepared infantry in a snowstorm for a strategically unimportant area, did not launch the attack until 3 January, by which time substantial numbers of German troops had already managed to fall back successfully, but at the cost of losing most of their heavy equipment.
At the start of the offensive, the First and Third U. American progress in the south was also restricted to about a kilometer or a little over half a mile per day.
On 7 January Hitler agreed to withdraw all forces from the Ardennes, including the SS-Panzer divisions, thus ending all offensive operations.
Considerable fighting went on for another 3 weeks; St. Vith was recaptured by the Americans on 23 January, and the last German units participating in the offensive did not return to their start line until 25 January.
Winston Churchill , addressing the House of Commons following the Battle of the Bulge said, "This is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever-famous American victory.
Infantrymen fire at German troops in the advance to relieve the surrounded paratroopers in Bastogne. Americans of the st Engineers near Wiltz , Luxembourg, January The plan and timing for the Ardennes attack sprang from the mind of Adolf Hitler.
He believed a critical fault line existed between the British and American military commands, and that a heavy blow on the Western Front would shatter this alliance.
Planning for the "Watch on the Rhine" offensive emphasized secrecy and the commitment of overwhelming force.
Due to the use of landline communications within Germany, motorized runners carrying orders, and draconian threats from Hitler, the timing and mass of the attack was not detected by ULTRA codebreakers and achieved complete surprise.
Hitler when selecting leadership for the attack, felt that the implementation of this decisive blow should be entrusted to his own Nazi Party army, the Waffen-SS.
Ever since German regular Army officers attempted to assassinate him, he had increasingly trusted only the SS and its armed branch, the Waffen-SS.
The strong right flank of the assault was therefore composed mostly of SS Divisions under the command of "Sepp" Joseph Dietrich, a fanatical political disciple of Hitler, and a loyal follower from the early days of the rise of National Socialism in Germany.
The leadership composition of the Sixth Panzer Division had a distinctly political nature. None of the German field commanders entrusted with planning and executing the offensive believed it was possible to capture Antwerp.
Even Sepp Dietrich, commanding the strongest arm of the attack, felt that the Ardennes was a poor area for armored warfare, and that the inexperienced and badly equipped Volksgrenadier units would clog the roads that the tanks would need for their rapid advance.
In this Dietrich was proved correct. The horse drawn artillery and rocket units were a significant obstacle to the tanks. Model and Manteuffel, the technical experts from the eastern front, took the view that a limited offensive with the goal of surrounding and crushing the American 1st Army would be the best the offensive could hope for.
These revisions shared the same fate as Dietrich's objections. In the end, the headlong drive on Elsenborn Ridge would not benefit from support from German units that had already bypassed the ridge.
The decision to stop the attacks on the twin villages and change the axis of the attacks southward to the hamlet of Domäne Bütgenbach, was also made by Dietrich.
The staff planning and organization of the attack was well done; most of the units committed to the offensive reached their jump off points undetected and were well organized and supplied for the attack.
Eisenhower 's commitment to a broad front advance. This view was opposed by the British Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Field Marshal Alan Brooke , as well as Field Marshal Montgomery, who promoted a rapid advance on a narrow front, with the other allied armies in reserve.
His ensuing public pronouncements of opinion caused tension in the American high command. Major General Freddie de Guingand , Chief of Staff of Montgomery's 21st Army Group, rose to the occasion, and personally smoothed over the disagreements on 30 December.
As the Ardennes crisis developed, at This change in command was ordered because the northern armies had not only lost all communications with Bradley, who was based in Luxembourg City,  and the US command structure, but with adjacent units.
The First Army was fighting desperately. I found the northern flank of the bulge was very disorganized. Ninth Army had two corps and three divisions; First Army had three corps and fifteen divisions.
Neither Army Commander had seen Bradley or any senior member of his staff since the battle began, and they had no directive on which to work. The first thing to do was to see the battle on the northern flank as one whole , to ensure the vital areas were held securely, and to create reserves for counter-attack.
I embarked on these measures: I positioned British troops as reserves behind the First and Ninth Armies until such time as American reserves could be created.
Slowly but surely the situation was held, and then finally restored. Similar action was taken on the southern flank of the bulge by Bradley, with the Third Army.
Due to the news blackout imposed on the 16th, the change of leadership to Montgomery did not become known to the outside world until eventually SHAEF made a public announcement making clear that the change in command was "absolutely nothing to do with failure on the part of the three American generals".
The story was also covered in Stars and Stripes and for the first time British contribution to the fighting was mentioned. Montgomery asked Churchill if he could give a conference to the press to explain the situation.
Though some of his staff were concerned at the image it would give, the conference had been cleared by Alan Brooke, the CIGS , who was possibly the only person to whom Montgomery would listen.
On the same day as Hitler's withdrawal order of 7 January, Montgomery held his press conference at Zonhoven.
On our team, the captain is General Ike. Then Montgomery described the course of the battle for a half-hour. Coming to the end of his speech he said he had "employed the whole available power of the British Group of Armies; this power was brought into play very gradually Finally it was put into battle with a bang The battle has been the most interesting, I think possibly one of the most interesting and tricky battles I have ever handled.
Despite his positive remarks about American soldiers, the overall impression given by Montgomery, at least in the ears of the American military leadership, was that he had taken the lion's share of credit for the success of the campaign, and had been responsible for rescuing the besieged Americans.
His comments were interpreted as self-promoting, particularly his claiming that when the situation "began to deteriorate," Eisenhower had placed him in command in the north.
Patton and Eisenhower both felt this was a misrepresentation of the relative share of the fighting played by the British and Americans in the Ardennes for every British soldier there were thirty to forty Americans in the fight , and that it belittled the part played by Bradley, Patton and other American commanders.
In the context of Patton's and Montgomery's well-known antipathy, Montgomery's failure to mention the contribution of any American general besides Eisenhower was seen as insulting.
Indeed, General Bradley and his American commanders were already starting their counterattack by the time Montgomery was given command of 1st and 9th U.
He later attributed this to needing more time for preparation on the northern front. According to Winston Churchill, the attack from the south under Patton was steady but slow and involved heavy losses, and Montgomery was trying to avoid this situation.
Many American officers had already grown to dislike Montgomery, who was seen by them as an overly cautious commander, arrogant, and all too willing to say uncharitable things about the Americans.
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill found it necessary in a speech to Parliament to explicitly state that the Battle of the Bulge was purely an American victory.
Montgomery subsequently recognized his error and later wrote: Chester Wilmot  explained that his dispatch to the BBC about it was intercepted by the German wireless, re-written to give it an anti-American bias, and then broadcast by Arnhem Radio, which was then in Goebbels ' hands.
Monitored at Bradley 's HQ, this broadcast was mistaken for a BBC transmission and it was this twisted text that started the uproar.
Montgomery later said, "Distorted or not, I think now that I should never have held that press conference. So great were the feelings against me on the part of the American generals that whatever I said was bound to be wrong.
I should therefore have said nothing. They believed he had belittled them—and they were not slow to voice reciprocal scorn and contempt.
Bradley and Patton both threatened to resign unless Montgomery's command was changed. Eisenhower, encouraged by his British deputy Arthur Tedder , had decided to sack Montgomery.
Freddie de Guingand , and Lt. Walter Bedell Smith , moved Eisenhower to reconsider and allowed Montgomery to apologize. The operations of the American 1st Army had developed into a series of individual holding actions.
Montgomery's contribution to restoring the situation was that he turned a series of isolated actions into a coherent battle fought according to a clear and definite plan.
It was his refusal to engage in premature and piecemeal counter-attacks which enabled the Americans to gather their reserves and frustrate the German attempts to extend their breakthrough.
Casualty estimates for the battle vary widely. According to the U. Department of Defense , American forces suffered 89, casualties including 19, killed, 47, wounded and 23, missing.
Armies listed 75, casualties 8, killed, 46, wounded and 21, missing. British casualties totaled 1, with deaths.
The German High Command estimated that they lost between 81, and 98, men in the Bulge between 16 December and 28 January ; the accepted figure was 81,, of which 12, were killed, 38, were wounded, and 30, were missing.
German armored losses to all causes were between and , with tanks being lost in combat. Although the Germans managed to begin their offensive with complete surprise and enjoyed some initial successes, they were not able to seize the initiative on the Western front.
While the German command did not reach its goals, the Ardennes operation inflicted heavy losses and set back the Allied invasion of Germany by several weeks.
The High Command of the Allied forces had planned to resume the offensive by early January , after the wet season rains and severe frosts, but those plans had to be postponed until 29 January in connection with the unexpected changes in the front.
The Allies pressed their advantage following the battle. By the beginning of February , the lines were roughly where they had been in December In early February, the Allies launched an attack all along the Western front: The German losses in the battle were especially critical: In response to the early success of the offensive, on 6 January Churchill contacted Stalin to request that the Soviets put pressure on the Germans on the Eastern Front.
Because of troop shortages during the Battle of the Bulge, Eisenhower decided to integrate the service for the first time.
More than 2, black soldiers had volunteered to go to the front. The battle around Bastogne received a great deal of media attention because in early December it was a rest and recreation area for many war correspondents.
The rapid advance by the German forces who surrounded the town, the spectacular resupply operations via parachute and glider, along with the fast action of General Patton's Third U.
Army, all were featured in newspaper articles and on radio and captured the public's imagination; but there were no correspondents in the area of Saint-Vith , Elsenborn , or Monschau-Höfen.
At Bletchley Park, F. Lucas and Peter Calvocoressi of Hut 3 were tasked in early with writing a report on the lessons to be learned from the handling of pre-battle intelligence.
The report concluded that "the costly reverse might have been avoided if Ultra had been more carefully considered". For its part, Hut 3 had grown "shy of going beyond its job of amending and explaining German messages.
Drawing broad conclusions was for the intelligence staff at SHAEF, who had information from all sources," including aerial reconnaissance.
Rose, head Air Adviser in Hut 3, read the paper at the time and described it in as "an extremely good report" that "showed the failure of intelligence at SHAEF and at the Air Ministry".
After the war ended, the U. Army issued battle credit in the form of the Ardennes-Alsace campaign citation to units and individuals that took part in operations in northwest Europe.
Third Army racing north, engaged in the concurrent Operation Nordwind diversion in central and southern Alsace launched to weaken Allied response in the Ardennes, and provided reinforcements to units fighting in the Ardennes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Operation Wahrung. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 8 November For other uses, see Battle of the Bulge disambiguation.
Vith during the Battle of the Bulge, January Belgium , Luxembourg , Germany Result Allied victory Western Allied offensive plans delayed by five or six weeks  German offensive exhausts their resources on Western Front.
German collapse opens way for Allies to ultimately break Siegfried Line Soviet offensive in Poland launched on 12 January , eight days earlier than originally intended.
December 16 , men tanks tank destroyers and assault guns 1, other AFVs 4, anti-tank and artillery pieces 13 infantry divisions [a] 7 armored divisions 1 brigade: Battle of the Bulge.
West European Campaign — Front line, 16 December. Front line, 20 December. Front line, 25 December.
Wehrmacht forces for the Ardennes Offensive. Battle of the Bulge order of battle. Battle of Elsenborn Ridge. The Sixth Panzer Army Attack.
Operation Bodenplatte and Operation Nordwind. This is a complete misnomer. I had nothing to do with it. It came to me as an order complete to the last detail.
Hitler had even written on the plan in his own handwriting 'not to be altered'". Jablonsky, David , Churchill and Hitler: In this case it signified rejection, and was explained to the Germans as meaning "Go to Hell!
Army's official history volume "Riviera to the Rhine" makes the following note on U. Cowdrey and Graham A. Cosmas, The Medical Department: Many of these may have been returned to their units, and others may have come from American units operating in the Colmar area but still supported by Seventh Army medical services.
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